Investigation of the anti-parasitic effect of the water extract of Thymbra spicata on Acanthamoeba castellani (L.) trophozoites and cysts


Abstract views: 151 / PDF downloads: 87

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.62313/ijpbp.2021.4

Keywords:

Thymbra spicata, Acanthamoeba castellani, Trophozoites, Cysts, Extract

Abstract

This study aimed to determine the anti-parasitic activity of the water extract obtained from Thymbra spicata (L.). The plant material was extracted with methanol in a Soxhlet apparatus. The extract was then fractionated with water and chloroform. The water phase was frozen and freeze-dried. Afterward, this extract was applied on A. castellani trophozoites and cysts at various concentrations, and the viability rates were determined by counting under the microscope. At the end of the experimental process, it was determined that there was a strong correlation between the increasing extract concentration and the anti-parasitic effect. T. spicata extract was not effective enough to neutralize all cysts at any of the concentrations examined. T. spicata extract, at concentrations of 16.0 and 32.0 mg/ml, removed all trophozoites in the medium from the 24th h of the experiment. Based on this result, it was determined that the plant species evaluated here could be used to treat A. castellani infections. It will be possible to achieve a good effect on the cyst forms of the parasite species by testing higher extract concentrations, which cannot be evaluated during the experimental process. In addition, with advanced analyzes, it will be possible to reveal the chemical substance responsible for the activity in the plant species in question and to perform further analyzes on this substance.

References

Arrieta, J., Reyes, B., Calzada, F., Cedillo-Rivera, R., Navarrete, A., 2001. Amoebicidal and giardicidal compounds from the leaves of Zanthoxylum liebmannianun. Fitoterapia, 72, 295-297. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0367-326X(00)00297-5

Balick, M.J., Cox, P.A., 2020. Plants, people, and culture: the science of ethnobotany. Garland Science. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003049074

Butler, M.S., 2004. The role of natural product chemistry in drug discovery. Journal of Natural Products, 67, 2141-2153. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/np040106y

Duguid, I.G.M., Dart, J.K., Morlet, N., Allan, B.D., Matheson, M., Ficker, L., Tuft, S., 1997. Outcome of Acanthamoeba keratitis treated with polyhexamethyl biguanide and propamidine. Ophthalmology, 104, 1587-1592. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0161-6420(97)30092-X

Fernández, S.S., Guerra, M.C.R., Cárdenas, B.D.M., Villarreal, J.V., Trevino, L.V., 2005. In vitro antiprotozoal activity of the leaves of Artemisia ludoviciana. Fitoterapia, 76, 466-468. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2005.04.009

Ficker, L., Seal, D., Warhurst, D., Wright, P., 1990. Acanthamoeba keratitis—resistance to medical therapy. Eye, 4, 835-838. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/eye.1990.132

Garcia, L.S., 2001. Diagnostic medical parasitology. IN: Manuel of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology, Wiley Online Library. Hancı, S., Sahin, S., Yılmaz, L., 2003. Isolation of volatile oil from thyme (Thymbra spicata) by steam distillation. Food/Nahrung, 47, 252-255. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/food.200390059

Hay, J., Kirkness, C.M., Seal, D.V., Wright, P., 1994. Drug resistance and Acanthamoeba keratitis: the quest for alternative antiprotozoal chemotherapy. Eye, 8, 555-563. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/eye.1994.137

Jones, D.B., 1986. Acanthamoeba-the ultimate opportunist? American Journal of Ophthalmology, 102, 527-530. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9394(86)90085-1

Kayser, O., Kiderlen, A., Croft, S., 2003. Natural products as anti-parasitic drugs. Parasitology Research, 90, S55-S62. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-002-0768-3

Kinghorn, A.D., 2001. Pharmacognosy in the 21st century. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 53, 135-148. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1211/0022357011775334

Kosrirukvongs, P., Wanachiwanawin, D., Visvesvara, G.S., 1999. Treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis with chlorhexidine. Ophthalmology, 106, 798-802. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0161-6420(99)90169-0

Malatyali, E., Tepe, B., Degerli, S., Berk, S., 2012. In vitro amoebicidal activities of Satureja cuneifolia and Melissa officinalis on Acanthamoeba castellanii cysts and trophozoites. Parasitology Research, 110, 2175-2180. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2744-2

Markovic, T., Chatzopoulou, P., Šiljegović, J., Nikolić, M., Glamočlija, J., Ćirić, A., Soković, M., 2011. Chemical analysis and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of Satureja thymbra L. and Thymbra spicata L. and their main components. Archives of Biological Sciences, 63, 457-464. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2298/ABS1102457M

Newman, D.J., Cragg, G.M., Snader, K.M., 2000. The influence of natural products upon drug discovery. Natural Product Reports, 17, 215-234. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1039/a902202c

Ozel, M.Z., Gogus, F., Lewis, A.C., 2003. Subcritical water extraction of essential oils from Thymbra spicata. Food Chemistry, 82, 381-386. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00558-7

Pussard, M., 1977. Morphologie de la paroi kystique et taxonomie du genre Acanthamoeba (Protozoa, Amoebida). Protistologica, 13(4), 557-598.

Quintanilla-Licea, R., Mata-Cárdenas, B.D., Vargas-Villarreal, J., Bazaldúa-Rodríguez, A.F., Kavimngeles-Hernández, I., Garza-González, J.N., Hernández-García, M.E., 2014. Antiprotozoal activity against Entamoeba histolytica of plants used in northeast Mexican traditional medicine. Bioactive compounds from Lippia graveolens and Ruta chalepensis. Molecules, 19, 21044-21065. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191221044

Samuelsson, G., 2004. Drugs of natural origin: a textbook of pharmacognosy, 5th Swedish Pharmaceutical Press. Stockholm, Sweden. Sokmen, A., Jones, B.M., Erturk, M., 1999. The in vitro antibacterial activity of Turkish medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 67, 79-86. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00189-5

Tepe, B., Degerli, S., Arslan, S., Malatyali, E., Sarikurkcu, C., 2011. Determination of chemical profile, antioxidant, DNA damage protection and antiamoebic activities of Teucrium polium and Stachys iberica. Fitoterapia, 82, 237-246. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2010.10.006

Downloads

Published

19.07.2021

How to Cite

Gulec, B., Tore, D., Sihoglu Tepe, A., & Kilic, I. H. (2021). Investigation of the anti-parasitic effect of the water extract of Thymbra spicata on Acanthamoeba castellani (L.) trophozoites and cysts. International Journal of Plant Based Pharmaceuticals, 1(1), 48–51. https://doi.org/10.62313/ijpbp.2021.4

Issue

Section

Research Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)