Phytochemical evaluation and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol extract of Pleurotus tuber-regium (Fr.) Singer in laboratory mice (Mus musculus)
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Keywords:Acute oral toxicity, Methanol, Pleurotus tuber-regium, Phytochemicals, Laboratory mice
This research aimed to evaluate the phytochemical components of the crude methanol extract (CME) of Pleurotus tuber-regium and its acute toxicity in mice, Mus musculus. Before being filtered and evaporated, the crushed mushroom was macerated in 70% methanol for 72 hours. The phytochemical screening and acute oral toxicity were carried out using standard procedures. The CME consists of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, saponins, phenolic compounds, tannins, steroids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, and terpenoids. When given orally, the LD50 was shown to be greater than 5000 mg/kg with no outward symptoms of toxicity. Haematology showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, total red blood cell, and neutrophil counts in the treatment group as compared to the control group, while total white blood cell and lymphocyte counts significantly (p < 0.05) increased. On serum biochemistry, a significant (p < 0.05) increase in aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transferase, alanine phosphatase, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine was observed in the treated group. There was however no significant (p > 0.05) difference in serum albumin and total protein. In conclusion, 5000 mg/kg of extract had a significant influence on the hematological and biochemical profiles of mice but didn’t cause irreparable liver and kidney damage.
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