Antioxidant activity of extracts from Xanthium strumarium – A medicinal plant from the Kingdom of Lesotho


Abstract views: 310 / PDF downloads: 176

Authors

  • Manoharan Karuppiah Pillai University of Eswatini, Faculty of Science & Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Kwaluseni Campus, Private Bag 4, Kwaluseni, M201 The Kingdom of Eswatini, Southern Africa https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7425-6509
  • Potlaki Thebe National University of Lesotho, Faculty of Science & Technology, Department of Chemistry & Chemical Technology, Roma Campus, P.O. Roma 180, The Kingdom of Lesotho, Southern Africa https://orcid.org/0009-0001-4566-9598
  • Rets’epile Paul Matamane National University of Lesotho, Faculty of Science & Technology, Department of Chemistry & Chemical Technology, Roma Campus, P.O. Roma 180, The Kingdom of Lesotho, Southern Africa https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4110-4119

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.29228/ijpbp.23

Keywords:

Xanthium strumarium, Asteraceae, DPPH assay, IC50 value, Total phenolic contents (TPCs), Total flavonoid contents (TFCs)

Abstract

Xanthium strumarium L. finds therapeutic applications in traditional medicines. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity and to determine the total phenolic contents (TPCs) and total flavonoid contents (TFCs) of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol, and water extracts obtained from the leaves and stem bark of X. strumarium. Maceration and hot solvent extraction techniques were used to obtain various solvent extracts. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and ferric-reducing power assays were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods were used to determine the TPCs and TFCs, respectively. The extracts from the leaves and stem bark exhibited radical scavenging activity in the ranges of 18.06 ± 0.3-185.67 ± 11.54% and 9.13 ± 0.54-84.18 ± 0.92%, respectively at a concentration range of 200-3000 µg/ml. The positive control, ascorbic acid, exhibited radical scavenging activity in a range of 56.64 ± 1.26-88.98 ± 0.31% at a concentration range of 200-3000 µg/ml. Additionally, the IC50 values of all these extracts were determined. The hexane and chloroform extracts from both leaves and stem bark and methanol leaf extract were found to be the most potent extracts with an IC50 value of < 200 µg/ml for each extract. The IC50 value of positive control, ascorbic acid was determined to be < 200 µg/ml. Furthermore, in the ferric-reducing power assay, ethyl acetate extract from both leaves and stem bark exhibited the highest ferric-reducing power of 0.996 ± 0.101 and 0.947 ± 0.018 at a concentration of 100 µg/ml. Moreover, the methanol extract from the leaves showed the highest TPCs of 133.41 ± 3.23 mg GAE/g of DW of extract followed by the methanol extract from stem bark and the acetone extract from the leaves with TPCs of 121.21 ± 3.14 and 118.01 ± 1.85 mg GAE/g of DW of extract, respectively. Similarly, the methanol extract from the leaves also showed the highest TFCs of 20.61 ± 1.81 mg QE/g of DW of extract followed by the methanol extract from stem bark with TFCs of 14.90 ± 1.18 mg QE/g of DW of extract. From this study, we concluded that various extracts obtained from the leaves and stem bark of X. strumarium exhibited a moderate-to-strong radical scavenging activity and ferric-reducing power and possessed a significant amount of TPCs and TFCs.

References

Aranjani, J. M., Manuel, A., Mallikarjuna Rao, C., Udupa, N., Rao, J. V., Joy, A. M., Gandhi, P., & Radhakrishnan, E. K. (2013). Preliminary evaluation of in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antitumor activity of Xanthium strumarium in transplantable tumors in mice. The American Journal of Chinese medicine, 41(1), 145-162.

Cole, R. J., Stuart, B. P., Lansden, J. A., & Cox, R. H. (1980). Isolation and redefinition of the toxic agent from cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 28(6), 1330-1332.

Fan, W., Fan, L., Peng, C., Zhang, Q., Wang, L., Li, L., Wang, J., Zhang, D., Peng, W., et al. (2019). Traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and toxicology of Xanthium strumarium L.: A review. Molecules, 24(2), 359.

Guemmaz, T., Zerargui, F., Boumerfeg, S., Arrar, L., Aouachria, S., Khennouf, S., Charef, N. E., & Baghiani, A. (2018). Anti-hemolytic, anti-lipid peroxidation, antioxidant properties and acute toxicity of Xanthium strumarium leaves extracts. Annual Research & Review in Biology, 24(3), 1-12.

Ishwarya, S., & Singh, M. K. (2010). Evaluation of antioxidant and in vitro cytotoxicity of crude fractions from the roots of Xanthiuim strumarium. International Journal of PharmTech Research, 2(4), 2219-2223.

Kamboj, A., & Saluja, A. K. (2010). Phytopharmacological review of Xanthium strumarium L. (Cocklebur). International Journal of Green Pharmacy (IJGP), 4(3), 129-139.

Kim, I. T., Park, Y. M., Won, J. H., Jung, H. J., Park, H. J., Choi, J. W., & Lee, K. T. (2005). Methanol extract of Xanthium strumarium L. possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 28(1), 94-100.

Kumar, K. S., & Rajkapoor, B. (2010). Evaluation of Anti-epileptic Activity of Xanthium strumarium L. Pharmacologyonline, 2, 850-855.

Lin, B., Zhao, Y., Han, P., Yue, W., Ma, X.-Q., Rahman, K., Zheng, C.-J., Qin, L.-P., & Han, T. (2014). Anti-arthritic activity of Xanthium strumarium L. extract on complete Freund׳ s adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 155(1), 248-255.

Ly, H. T., Truong, T. M., Nguyen, T. T. H., Nguyen, H. D., Zhao, Y., & Le, V. M. (2021). Phytochemical screening and anticancer activity of the aerial parts extract of Xanthium strumarium L. on HepG2 cancer cell line. Clinical Phytoscience, 7(1), 1-8.

Masvingwe, C., & Mavenyengwa, M. (1998). Toxicological evaluation of the plant Xanthium strumarium in Pigs in Zimbabwe. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins, 4, 113-119.

Patil, M. V. K., Kandhare, A. D., & Bhise, S. D. (2012). Anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory activity of Xanthium srtumarium L. ethanolic extract in Freund's complete adjuvant induced arthritis. Biomedicine & Aging Pathology, 2(1), 6-15.

Pillai, M. K., & Magama, S. (2020). DPPH radical scavenging activity of extracts from Urtica urens (Urticaceae). Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 14(5), 232-238.

Pillai, M. K., Matela, K. S., George, M. J., & Magama, S. (2018). Antioxidant activity of extracts from Schinus molle L. and Gleditsia triacanthos L. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 12(24), 369-374.

Rad, J. S., Alfatemi, S. M. H., Rad, M. S., & Iriti, M. (2013). In vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Xanthium strumarium L. extracts on methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Ancient Science of Life, 33(2), 109-113.

Scherer, R., Duarte, M., Catharino, R., Nachtigall, F., Eberlin, M., Teixeira Filho, J., & Godoy, H. (2009). Xanthium strumarium L. antimicrobial activity and carboxyatractyloside analysis through electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais, 11, 159-163.

Scherer, R., & Godoy, H. (2014). Effects of extraction methods of phenolic compounds from Xanthium strumarium L. and their antioxidant activity. Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais, 16, 41-46.

Sharifi-Rad, J., Hoseini-Alfatemi, S. M., Sharifi-Rad, M., Sharifi-Rad, M., Iriti, M., Sharifi-Rad, M., Sharifi-Rad, R., & Raeisi, S. (2015). Phytochemical compositions and biological activities of essential oil from Xanthium strumarium L. Molecules, 20(4), 7034-7047.

Sharma, S., Singh, D., Khan, F., Swarankar, C., & Bhagwan, P. (2003). Anthelmintic activity of Xanthium strumarium against Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences (India), 73(3), 342-344.

Singh, S., Raghavendra, K., & Dua, V. (2009). Evaluation of Larvicidal and Repellent Activity of Xanthium strumarium (Asteraceae) Ethanol Extract agaist Mosquito Vectors. Portal Regional da BVS, 41(4), 263-269.

Sixtus, S. T., & Pillai, M. K. (2022). Evaluation of antioxidant activity of extracts from Leucosidea sericea. Herba Polonica, 68(1), 10-18.

Sridharamurthy, N., Yogananda, R., & Srinivas, U. (2011). In vitro Antioxidant and Antilipidemic Activities of Xanthium strumarium L. Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy, 5(3), 1362-1371.

Subba, B., & Gaire, S. (2022). Analysis of phyto-constituents, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of some medicinal plants of Nepal. Scientific World, 15(15), 44-50.

Talakal, T., Dwivedi, S., & Sharma, S. (1995). In vitro and in vivo antitrypanosomal activity of Xanthium strumarium leaves. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 49(3), 141-145.

Tenguria, M. (2013). Estimation of Total Polyphenolic Content and Antibiogram Studies of Leaf and Fruit Aqueous Extracts of Xanthium strumarium L. Science Secure Journal of Biotechnology, 2(3), 83-88.

Turgut, M., Alhan, C. C., Gürgöze, M., Kurt, A., Doğan, Y., Tekatli, M., Akpolat, N., & Aygün, A. D. (2005). Carboxyatractyloside poisoning in humans. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics, 25(2), 125-134.

Downloads

Published

23.05.2023

How to Cite

Karuppiah Pillai, M., Thebe, P., & Paul Matamane, R. (2023). Antioxidant activity of extracts from Xanthium strumarium – A medicinal plant from the Kingdom of Lesotho. International Journal of Plant Based Pharmaceuticals, 3(1), 114–122. https://doi.org/10.29228/ijpbp.23

Issue

Section

Research Articles
Received 2023-02-22
Accepted 2023-05-10
Published 2023-05-23