The effects of Quercus (Oak) acorn on cutaneous wound healing in rats

Abstract views: 87 / PDF downloads: 57




Oak acorn, Epithelization, Wound healing, Rat


Quercus spp. (Oak) has been used in traditional medicine due to its medicinal properties for centuries. However, its effect on wound healing in the skin is well unknown. This experimental trial was performed to evaluate in vivo wound healing of Oak acorn in the skin of rats. In the present trial, 24 Wistar albino rats were allocated to three groups equally, control (n = 8), Madecassol® (n = 8), and Oak acorn (n = 8). The circular excision wound models by biopsy punch device were applied in the interscapular region in rats. Oak acorn and Madecassol® pomade have been applied to experimental groups per day and normal saline solution and glycerin have been given to the control group locally as placebo. Blood and skin tissue were collected to evaluate histopathological and biochemical alterations on days 7th and 15th. In comparison with the control group, the topical administration of Oak acorn showed definite effects on epithelization, proliferative impacts on fibroblast cells, and enhancing effect on collagen formation by reducing inflammation and edema. Biochemical investigations of skin and blood tissues exhibited that fluctuated malondialdehyde and antioxidant defense system components were rehabilitated in the Oak acorn group. This experimental study revealed that pomade obtained from the Oak acorn displays remarkable wound-healing activity.


Agyare, C., Boakye, Y. D., Bekoe, E. O., Hensel, A., Dapaah, S. O., & Appiah, T. (2016). African medicinal plants with wound healing properties. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 177, 85-100.

Akkol, E. K., Süntar, I., Erdoğan, T. F., Keleş, H., Gonenc, T. M., & Kıvçak, B. (2012). Wound healing and anti-inflammatory properties of Ranunculus pedatus and Ranunculus constantinapolitanus: a comparative study. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 139(2), 478-484.

Aksoy, H., & Özakpınar, Ö. B. (2014). Yara iyileşmesi ve oksidatif stres. Marmara Pharmaceutical Journal, 18(3), 153-158.

Aldrich, P. R., & Cavender-Bares, J. (2011). Quercus. In C. Kole (Ed.), Wild Crop Relatives: Genomic and Breeding Resources, Forest Trees (pp. 89-129): Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Alerico, G. C., Beckenkamp, A., Vignoli-Silva, M., Buffon, A., & von Poser, G. L. (2015). Proliferative effect of plants used for wound healing in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 176, 305-310.

Arnold, F., & West, D. C. (1991). Angiogenesis in wound healing. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 52(3), 407-422.

Beutler, E., Duron, O., & Kelly, B. M. (1963). Improved method for the determination of blood glutathione. The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 61, 882-888.

Bradshaw, M., Ho, D., Fear, M. W., Gelain, F., Wood, F. M., & Iyer, K. S. (2014). Designer self-assembling hydrogel scaffolds can impact skin cell proliferation and migration. Scientific Reports, 4(1), 6903.

Bratianu, P. R. N. (2015). The natural healing power of oak trees and Acorns. Retrieved from Accessed May 6, 2022.

Calvin, M. (1998). Cutaneous wound repair. Wounds, 10, 12-32.

Czuczejko, J., Zachara, B., Staubach-Topczewska, E., Halota, W., & Kędziora, J. (2003). Selenium, glutathione and glutathione peroxidases in blood of patients with chronic liver diseases. Acta Biochimica Polonica, 50(4), 1147-1154.

Çavdar, C., Sifil, A., & Çamsarı, T. (1997). Reactive oxygen particles and antioxidant defence. Office Journal of the Turkish Nephrology Association, 3(4), 92-95.

Dardmah, F., & Farahpour, M. R. (2021). Quercus infectoria gall extract aids wound healing in a streptozocin-induced diabetic mouse model. Journal of Wound Care, 30(8), 618-625.

Demidova-Rice, T. N., Hamblin, M. R., & Herman, I. M. (2012). Acute and impaired wound healing: pathophysiology and current methods for drug delivery, part 1: Normal and chronic wounds: biology, causes, and approaches to care. Advances in Skin & Wound Care, 25(7), 304-314.

Firdous, S. M., & Sautya, D. (2018). Medicinal plants with wound healing potential. Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology, 13(1), 41-52.

Galvez, M., Martin-Cordero, C., Lopez-Lazaro, M., Cortes, F., & Ayuso, M. J. (2003). Cytotoxic effect of Plantago spp. on cancer cell lines. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 88(2-3), 125-130.

Gezici, S., & Sekeroglu, N. (2019). Neuroprotective potential and phytochemical composition of acorn fruits. Industrial Crops and Products, 128, 13-17.

Heinze, C., & Clem, M. (1988). Wound healing and tissue repair. Textbook of Large Animal Surgery, 2, 141-153.

Herbette, S., Roeckel‐Drevet, P., & Drevet, J. R. (2007). Seleno‐independent glutathione peroxidases: More than simple antioxidant scavengers. The FEBS Journal, 274(9), 2163-2180.

Hunt, T. K., Hopf, H., & Hussain, Z. (2000). Physiology of wound healing. Advances in Skin & Wound Care, 13, 6-11.

Iyyam Pillai, S., Palsamy, P., Subramanian, S., & Kandaswamy, M. (2010). Wound healing properties of Indian propolis studied on excision wound-induced rats. Pharmaceutical Biology, 48(11), 1198-1206.

Jain, S. K., McVie, R., Duett, J., & Herbst, J. J. (1989). Erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation and glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetes. Diabetes, 38(12), 1539-1543.

Kaur, G., Hamid, H., Ali, A., Alam, M. S., & Athar, M. (2004). Antiinflammatory evaluation of alcoholic extract of galls of Quercus infectoria. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 90(2-3), 285-292.

Kirsner, R. S., & Eaglstein, W. H. (1993). The wound healing process. Dermatologic Clinics, 11(4), 629-640.

Latif, M. A., Zaki, M. Z. M., Leng, T. M., Rahman, N. H. A., Arshad, S. A., & Hamid, A. (2015). Alocasia denudata Engler treatment enhance open wound healing activities in Wistar rat’s skin. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 176, 258-267.

Maver, T., Maver, U., Stana Kleinschek, K., Smrke, D. M., & Kreft, S. (2015). A review of herbal medicines in wound healing. International Journal of Dermatology, 54(7), 740-751.

McCord, J. M., & Fridovich, I. (1969). Superoxide dismutase: an enzymic function for erythrocuprein (hemocuprein). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 244(22), 6049-6055.

McCune, L. M., & Johns, T. (2002). Antioxidant activity in medicinal plants associated with the symptoms of diabetes mellitus used by the indigenous peoples of the North American boreal forest. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 82(2-3), 197-205.

Molina-Garcia, L., Martinez-Exposito, R., Fernandez de Cordova, M., & Llorent-Martinez, E. (2018). Determination of the phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of leaves and fruits of Spanish Quercus coccifera. Journal of Chemistry, 2018, 2573270.

Munz, B., Frank, S., Hübner, G., Olsen, E., & Werner, S. (1997). A novel type of glutathione peroxidase: expression and regulation during wound repair. Biochemical Journal, 326(2), 579-585.

Mustoe, T. (2004). Understanding chronic wounds: a unifying hypothesis on their pathogenesis and implications for therapy. The American Journal of Surgery, 187(5), S65-S70.

Muthukumar, T., Anbarasu, K., Prakash, D., & Sastry, T. P. (2014). Effect of growth factors and pro-inflammatory cytokines by the collagen biocomposite dressing material containing Macrotyloma uniflorum plant extract—in vivo wound healing. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 121, 178-188.

Ötün, B., & Yücel, U. M. (2019). Wound healing effect of different extracts of Centaurea pterocaula. Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology, 14(1), 9-16.

Öztaş, P. (2021). Yara iyileşmesi, bakımı ve tedavisi. Ankara Eğitim ve Araştırma Hastanesi Tıp Dergisi, 54(2), 341-351.

Popović, B. M., Štajner, D., Ždero, R., Orlović, S., & Galić, Z. (2013). Antioxidant characterization of oak extracts combining spectrophotometric assays and chemometrics. The Scientific World Journal, 2013, 134656.

Rees, R. S., Smith Jr, D. J., Adamson, B., Im, M., & Hinshaw, D. (1995). Oxidant stress: the role of the glutathione redox cycle in skin preconditioning. Journal of Surgical Research, 58(4), 395-400.

Rigler, D. J. (1997). Inflamation and repair. In T. C. Jones, R. D. Hunt, & N. W. King (Eds.), Veterinary Pathology, 6nd Ed (pp. 150-157): Williams &Wilkins, Pennsylvania.

Riordan, N. H., George, B. A., Chandler, T. B., & McKenna, R. W. (2015). Case report of non-healing surgical wound treated with dehydrated human amniotic membrane. Journal of Translational Medicine, 13(1), 1-5.

Saarialho-Kere, U. K. (1992). Patterns of matrix metalloproteinase and TIMP expressionin chronic ulcers. Archives of Dermatological Research, 290, 47-54.

Sadaf, F., Saleem, R., Ahmed, M., & Ahmad, S. I. (2006). Healing potential of cream containing extract of Sphaeranthus indicus on dermal wounds in Guinea pigs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 107(2), 161-163.

Sanjari, T., Hajjar, T., & Momeni-Moghaddam, M. (2015). The role of mesenchymal stem cells in skin wound healing. Journal of Cell and Molecular Research, 7(2), 70-75.

Süntar, İ., Baldemir, A., Coşkun, M., Keleş, H., & Akkol, E. K. (2011). Wound healing acceleration effect of endemic Ononis species growing in Turkey. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 135(1), 63-70.

Swaim, S., & Henderson, R. (1990). Wound dressing materials and topical medication. Small animal wound management: Williams and Wilkins Ed.

Şöhretoğlu, D., & Renda, G. (2020). The polyphenolic profile of Oak (Quercus) species: A phytochemical and pharmacological overview. Phytochemistry Reviews, 19(6), 1379-1426.

Şöhretoğlu, D., Sabuncuoğlu, S., & Harput, Ü. Ş. (2012). Evaluation of antioxidative, protective effect against H2O2 induced cytotoxicity, and cytotoxic activities of three different Quercus species. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 50(2), 141-146.

Theoret, C. L. (2005). The pathophysiology of wound repair. Veterinary Clinics: Equine Practice, 21(1), 1-13.

Thomas, A. C., & Wysocki, A. B. (1990). The healing wound: a comparison of three clinically useful methods of measurement. Decubitus, 3(1), 18-20.

Valero, C., Javierre, E., García‐Aznar, J., & Gómez‐Benito, M. (2014). Nonlinear finite element simulations of injuries with free boundaries: application to surgical wounds. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering, 30(6), 616-633.

van Rijswijk, L., & Braden, B. (1999). Pressure ulcer patient and wound assessment: an AHCPR clinical practice guideline update. Ostomy/Wound Management, 45(1A Suppl), 56S-67S.

Yager, D. R., Kulina, R. A., & Gilman, L. A. (2007). Wound fluids: a window into the wound environment? The International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds, 6(4), 262-272.




How to Cite

Uyar, A., Jhangir, G. M., Keleş, Ömer F., & Yener, Z. (2023). The effects of Quercus (Oak) acorn on cutaneous wound healing in rats. International Journal of Plant Based Pharmaceuticals, 3(2), 148–155.



Research Articles
Received 2023-06-14
Accepted 2023-07-21
Published 2023-07-26