Organ-dependent variability in mineral composition, phytochemicals and antioxidant potentials in Polygonum equisetiforme parts

Abstract views: 181 / PDF downloads: 73


  • Maher Mahmoudi University of Jendouba, Higher Institute of Biotechnology of Beja, Laboratory of Functional Physiology and Valorization of Bio-Ressources, Beja 382-9000, Tunisia
  • Fayçal Boughalleb University of Gabes, Arid Regions Institute, Laboratory of Rangeland Ecosystems and Valorization of Spontaneous Plants and Associated Microorganisms, Medenine, Tunisia
  • Samah Maaloul University of Gabes, Arid Regions Institute, Laboratory of Rangeland Ecosystems and Valorization of Spontaneous Plants and Associated Microorganisms, Medenine, Tunisia
  • Talel Bouhamda University of Gabes, Arid Regions Institute, Advanced Analysis Platform, Medenine, Tunisia
  • Nizar Nasri University of Tunis El-Manar, Faculty of Sciences of Tunis, Laboratory of Plant, Soil and Environment Interactions (LR21ES01), Tunis, Tunisia
  • Raoudha Abdellaoui University of Gabes, Arid Regions Institute, Laboratory of Rangeland Ecosystems and Valorization of Spontaneous Plants and Associated Microorganisms, Medenine, Tunisia



Polygonum equisetiforme, Minerals, Phenolics, Antioxidant, LC-ESI/MS


Polygonum equisetiforme is a perennial herbaceous plant thriving in the arid regions of Tunisia and widely used in health care and self-medication. The objective of the current study was to investigate the distribution of minerals, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant potentials in various plant parts including the fruit, stem, leaf, and root. The mineral composition was determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The phenolic content of the samples was investigated using colorimetric assays and identified and quantified using HPLC-ESI/MS. The study found that the different parts of P. equisetiforme contain significant amounts of essential minerals such as sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc, and iron. The leaf and root extracts had high amounts of polyphenols, flavonoids, and tannins. Through LC-ESI-MS analysis, eleven flavonoids and eight phenolic acids were characterized. The most abundant compounds were gallic acid, quinic acid, catechin (+), and hyperoside. The findings suggest that different parts of P. equisetiforme are valuable sources of essential minerals and phenolic compounds, which can have potential health benefits.


Abd-ElGawad, A. M., Ahmed, R. F., Essa, A. F., Gendy, A. E. N. G. E., El-Newary, S. A., Elshamy, A. I., Sarker, T. C., & El-Amier, Y. A. (2023). Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry Chemical Profiling and Radical Scavenging Potential of Sesquiterpene-Rich Essential Oil of Polygonum equisetiforme Sm.: In Silico Study on Hematopoietic Cell Kinase (Hck) and Human Peroxiredoxin 5. Chemistry, 5(4), 2257-2272.

Bernatoniene, J., & Kopustinskiene, D. M. (2018). The role of catechins in cellular responses to oxidative stress. Molecules, 23(4), 965.

Bidak, L. M., El-Razik, M., & El-Kenany, E. T. (2007). Phenotypic plasticity among ecological populations of Polygonum equisetiforme Sm. in the northern geographical areas, Egypt. International Journal of Botany, 3(2), 160-171.

Boughalleb, F., Abdellaoui, R., Mahmoudi, M., & Bakhshandeh, E. (2020). Changes in phenolic profile, soluble sugar, proline, and antioxidant enzyme activities of Polygonum equisetiforme in response to salinity. Turkish Journal of Botany, 44(1), 25-35.

Boughalleb, F., Maaloul, S., Mahmoudi, M., Mabrouk, M., Bakhshandeh, E., & Abdellaoui, R. (2021). Limoniastrum guyonianum behavior under seasonal conditions fluctuations of Sabkha Aïn Maïder (Tunisia). Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 168, 305-320.

Broadhurst, R. B., & Jones, W. T. (1978). Analysis of condensed tannins using acidified vanillin. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 29(9), 788-794.

Cao, G., & Prior, R. L. (1998). Comparison of different analytical methods for assessing total antioxidant capacity of human serum. Clinical Chemistry, 44(6), 1309-1315.

Corlett, J. L., Clegg, M. S., Keen, C. L., & Grivetti, L. E. (2002). Mineral content of culinary and medicinal plants cultivated by Hmong refugees living in Sacramento, California. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 53(2), 117-128.

Dewanto, V., Wu, X., Adom, K. K., & Liu, R. H. (2002). Thermal processing enhances the nutritional value of tomatoes by increasing total antioxidant activity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50(10), 3010-3014.

El-Haci, I. A., Bekkara, F. A., Mazari, W., Hassani, F., & Didi, M. A. (2013). Screening of biological activities of Polygonum maritimum L. from Algerian coast. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 3(8), 611-616.

El-Toumy, S. A. H., Salib, J. Y., Shafik, N. H., Abd Elkarim, A. S., Salama, A., Omara, E. A. A., & Micky, J. (2019). Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of Polygonum equisetiforme methanolic extract. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 9(11), 054-059.

El-Toumy, S. A. H., Salib, J. Y., Shafik, N. H., Elkarim, A. S., & Farag, A. A. (2017). New flavonoids from the aerial parts of Polygonum equisetiforme SM (Polygonaceae). International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 9, 166-170.

Facciola, S. (1990). Cornucopia: A source book of edible plants: Kampong Publications.

Gümüşçü, A., Dinç, S., Kara, M., Akkuş, M., & Gümüşçü, G. (2022). Phenolic compounds of natural knotweed (Polygonum cognatum Meissn.) populations from Turkey. International Journal of Plant Based Pharmaceuticals, 2(1), 37-41.

Helrich, K. (1990). Official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (Vol. 2): Association of Official Analytical Chemists.

Huang, X. Y., Zeller, F. J., Huang, K. F., Shi, T. X., & Chen, Q. F. (2014). Variation of major minerals and trace elements in seeds of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.). Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 61, 567-577.

Hussein, S., Usama, E. M., Tantawy, M., Kawashty, S., & Saleh, N. (2017). Phenolics of selected species of Persicaria and Polygonum (Polygonaceae) in Egypt. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 10(1), 76-81.

Ibrahim, T. A., & El-Hela, A. A. (2012). Polysaccharide from the roots of Polygonum equisetiforme Sibth. & Sm: isolation, chemical composition, antioxidant potential and cytotoxic activity. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, 3(4), 478-492.

Jang, S. A., Park, D. W., Kwon, J. E., Song, H. S., Park, B., Jeon, H., Sohn, E. H., Koo, H. J., & Kang, S. C. (2017). Quinic acid inhibits vascular inflammation in TNF-α-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 96, 563-571.

Kanjaksha, G. (2006). Practitioners section-Non haematological effects of iron deficiency-A perspective. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences, 60(1), 30-37.

Khafagi, I. K., & Dewedar, A. (2000). The efficiency of random versus ethno-directed research in the evaluation of Sinai medicinal plants for bioactive compounds. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 71(3), 365-376.

Kolasani, A., Xu, H., & Millikan, M. (2011). Evaluation of mineral content of Chinese medicinal herbs used to improve kidney function with chemometrics. Food Chemistry, 127(4), 1465-1471.

Maher, M., Raoudha, A., Mahmoud, M., & Fayçal, B. (2023). Investigation into the seeds of Argyrolobium uniflorum: a candidate for ecosystem restoration in Tunisian arid regions. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, 1-11.

Mahmoudi, M., Abdellaoui, R., Boughalleb, F., Yahia, B., Bouhamda, T., Bakhshandeh, E., & Nasri, N. (2020a). Bioactive phytochemicals from unexploited Lotus creticus L. seeds: A new raw material for novel ingredients. Industrial Crops and Products, 151, 112462.

Mahmoudi, M., Abdellaoui, R., Boughalleb, F., Yahia, B., Mabrouk, M., & Nasri, N. (2021a). Characterization of lipids, proteins, and bioactive compounds in the seeds of three Astragalus species. Food Chemistry, 339, 127824.

Mahmoudi, M., Abdellaoui, R., Feki, E., Boughalleb, F., Zaidi, S., & Nasri, N. (2021b). Analysis of Polygonum aviculare and Polygonum maritimum for minerals by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), polyphenolics by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS), and antioxidant properties by spectrophotometry. Analytical Letters, 54(18), 2940-2955.

Mahmoudi, M., Boughalleb, F., Bouhamda, T., Abdellaoui, R., & Nasri, N. (2018). Unexploited Polygonum equisetiforme seeds: Potential source of useful natural bioactive products. Industrial Crops and Products, 122, 349-357.

Mahmoudi, M., Boughalleb, F., Mabrouk, M., Tlili, N., Potter, D., Abdellaoui, R., & Nasri, N. (2019). Chemical analysis of the antioxidants from the aerial parts of wild Polygonum equisetiforme from Tunisia. Food Bioscience, 29, 24-29.

Mahmoudi, M., Boughalleb, F., Pellegrino, G., Abdellaoui, R., & Nasri, N. (2020b). Flower, seed, and fruit development in three Tunisian species of Polygonum: Implications for their taxonomy and evolution of distyly in Polygonaceae. PLoS ONE, 15(1), e0227099.

Mouldi, G. (2014). Natural vegetation cover dynamic under grazing-rotation managements in desert rangelands of Tunisia. Arid Ecosystems, 20(4), 66-75.

Oyaizu, M. (1986). Studies on products of browning reaction antioxidative activities of products of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine. The Japanese Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics, 44(6), 307-315.

Park, Y. J., Cheon, G. Y., Song, H. W., Shin, C. S., Ku, Y. G., Kang, N. R., & Heo, B. G. (2016). Mineral composition and physiological activities of methanol extract from the seeds of Persicaria tinctoria. Korean Journal of Plant Resources, 29(1), 32-38.

Prieto, P., Pineda, M., & Aguilar, M. (1999). Spectrophotometric quantitation of antioxidant capacity through the formation of a phosphomolybdenum complex: specific application to the determination of vitamin E. Analytical Biochemistry, 269(2), 337-341.

Rodrigues, M. J., Matkowski, A., Ślusarczyk, S., Magne, C., Poleze, T., Pereira, C., & Custodio, L. (2019a). Sea knotgrass (Polygonum maritimum L.) as a potential source of innovative industrial products for skincare applications. Industrial Crops and Products, 128, 391-398.

Rodrigues, M. J., Monteiro, I., Placines, C., Castaneda-Loaiza, V., Ślusarczyk, S., Matkowski, A., Pereira, C., Pousao-Ferreira, P., & Custodio, L. (2019b). The irrigation salinity and harvesting affect the growth, chemical profile and biological activities of Polygonum maritimum L. Industrial Crops and Products, 139, 111510.

Rodrigues, M. J., Neves, V., Martins, A., Rauter, A. P., Neng, N. R., Nogueira, J. M., Varela, J., Barreira, L., & Custódio, L. (2016). In vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Limonium algarvense flowers’ infusions and decoctions: A comparison with green tea (Camellia sinensis). Food Chemistry, 200, 322-329.

Sánchez‐Moreno, C., Larrauri, J. A., & Saura‐Calixto, F. (1998). A procedure to measure the antiradical efficiency of polyphenols. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 76(2), 270-276.

Song, J., Zhou, N., Ma, W., Gu, X., Chen, B., Zeng, Y., Yang, L., & Zhou, M. (2019). Modulation of gut microbiota by chlorogenic acid pretreatment on rats with adrenocorticotropic hormone induced depression-like behavior. Food & Function, 10(5), 2947-2957.

Vickers, N. J. (2017). Animal communication: when i’m calling you, will you answer too? Current Biology, 27, R702-R719.

Yang, J., Meyers, K. J., Van Der Heide, J., & Liu, R. H. (2004). Varietal differences in phenolic content and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of onions. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52(22), 6787-6793.




How to Cite

Mahmoudi, M., Boughalleb, F., Maaloul, S., Bouhamda, T., Nasri, N., & Abdellaoui, R. (2024). Organ-dependent variability in mineral composition, phytochemicals and antioxidant potentials in Polygonum equisetiforme parts. International Journal of Plant Based Pharmaceuticals, 4(1), 40–46.



Research Articles
Received 2024-01-16
Accepted 2024-04-05
Published 2024-04-07