Fungi mediated agarwood (A. malaccensis) production and their pharmaceutical applications: A systematic review

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  • Aizi Nor Mazila Ramli University of Malaysia Pahang, Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
  • Sufihana Yusof University of Malaysia Pahang, Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
  • Prakash Bhuyar Maejo University, Maejo University International College (MJU-IC), Program in Organic Agriculture Management, 50290 Chiang Mai, Thailand
  • Aimi Wahidah Aminan University of Malaysia Pahang, Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
  • Saiful Nizam Tajuddin University of Malaysia Pahang, Bio Aromatic Research Centre of Excellent, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia



Agarwood, Aquilaria malaccensis, Inoculation, Pharmaceutical applications


Aquilaria malaccensis is a tropical tree that produces expensive resinous heartwood agarwood through the natural process induced by natural or artificial injury or microbial infection. Fungi are commonly noticed as the main microbial component responsible for agarwood formation. The current review investigated the agarwood quality and fungi diversity in artificial and natural agarwood from A. malecensis trees from the rainforest for various pharmaceutical applications. Apart from being an aromatherapy material, in medicinal prospect, agarwood can be used as a carminative, stimulant for heart palpitation, tonic during pregnancy, remedy during the post-natal recovery period, and cure for the disease of the female genital part. The whitebark of agarwood is believed to heal jaundice and body pain. Moreover, agarwood helps to relieve body pain, warm the abdomen, relieve asthma, treat coughs, and acroparalysis acts as antihistamine, analgesic and anti-inflammatory. In Chinese traditional medicine, it is helpful as a sedative to relieve gastric problems, relieve rheumatism and high fever. Agarwood properties were able to fight cancer cells but very little is known about this process. The present review also illustrated the variety of kinds of pharmaceutical applications in the treatment of various diseases. Current review findings proved that artificial agarwood may produce quality equal to natural agarwood and may not be affected by fungi interacting with the tree, which can be used as a superior pharmaceutical application.


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How to Cite

Ramli, A. N. M., Yusof, S., Bhuyar, P., Aminan, A. W., & Tajuddin, S. N. (2022). Fungi mediated agarwood (A. malaccensis) production and their pharmaceutical applications: A systematic review. International Journal of Plant Based Pharmaceuticals, 2(2), 261–270.



Received 2022-08-16
Accepted 2022-09-08
Published 2022-09-13