Essential oil and extracts from Lavandula angustifolia Mill. cultivated in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Antioxidant activity and acetylcholinesterase inhibition
Abstract views: 374 / PDF downloads: 155
Keywords:Lavandula angustifolia, Essential oil, GC-FID/MS, Antioxidant activity, Acetylcholinesterase inhibition
Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is a perennial, aromatic, medicinal, and decorative plant widespread in the Mediterranean. Due to the high content of essential oil and numerous beneficial properties, it is an extremely valued plant species. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, lavender is cultivated mainly for the needs of the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. In this research, the antioxidant activity and acetylcholinesterase inhibition of essential oil (EO) and extracts isolated from lavender were evaluated. L. angustifolia EO was isolated using whole plant material in the flowering period by steam distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) with flame-ionization (FID) and mass spectrometric (MS) detection. Extracts were prepared by ultrasonic extraction in solvents of different polarities. Total phenolic content in extracts was determined using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent. The antioxidant activity of EO and extracts was examined by two methods, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging activities and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP), while the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory potential was determined using modified Ellman’s method. The EO was high in content of linalool (27.72%) and linalyl acetate (22.82%), followed by α-pinene (9.82%), lavandulol acetate (7.32%), trans-caryophyllene (5.70%), and others. In total, 24 components were identified. Total phenol content was highest in water and ethanol extracts (45.3 and 14.40 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry extract). Polar extracts indicate good antioxidant power according to both methods, while EO can be considered as good inhibitor of AChE.
Adaszyńska-Skwirzyńska, M., & Dzięcioł, M. (2017). Comparison of phenolic acids and flavonoids contents in various cultivars and parts of common lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) derived from Poland. Natural Product Research, 31(21), 2575-2580.
Bakhsha, F., Mazandarani, M., Aryaei, M., Jafari, S. Y., & Bayate, H. (2014). Phytochemical and anti-oxidant activity of Lavandula angustifolia mill. essential oil on preoperative anxiety in patients undergoing diagnostic curettage. International Journal of Women’s Health and Reproduction Sciences, 2(4), 268–271.
Benzie, I. F., & Strain, J. J. (1996). The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Analytical Biochemistry, 239(1), 70-76.
Białoń, M., Krzyśko-Łupicka, T., Nowakowska-Bogdan, E., & Wieczorek, P. P. (2019). Chemical composition of two different lavender essential oils and their effect on facial skin microbiota. Molecules, 24(18), 3270.
Blažeković, B., Vladimir-Knežević, S., Brantner, A., & Štefan, M. B. (2010). Evaluation of antioxidant potential of Lavandula x intermedia Emeric ex Loisel.‘Budrovka’: A comparative study with L. angustifolia Mill. Molecules, 15(9), 5971-5987.
Blažeković, B., Yang, W., Wang, Y., Li, C., Kindl, M., Pepeljnjak, S., & Vladimir-Knežević, S. (2018). Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oils of Lavandula × intermedia ‘Budrovka’ and L. angustifolia cultivated in Croatia. Industrial Crops and Products, 123, 173-182.
Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M. E., & Berset, C. (1995). Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 28(1), 25-30.
Costea, T., Străinu, A., & Gîrd, C. (2019). Botanical characterization, chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Romanian lavander (Lavandula angustifolia mill.) flowers. Studia Universitatis Vasile Goldis Arad, Seria Stiintele Vietii, 29(4), 159-167.
Crișan, I., Ona, A., Vârban, D., Muntean, L., Vârban, R., Stoie, A., Mihăiescu, T., & Morea, A. (2023). Current Trends for Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) Crops and Products with Emphasis on Essential Oil Quality. Plants, 12(2), 357.
Da Porto, C., Decorti, D., & Kikic, I. (2009). Flavour compounds of Lavandula angustifolia L. to use in food manufacturing: Comparison of three different extraction methods. Food Chemistry, 112(4), 1072-1078.
Duda, S. C., Mărghitaş, L. A., Dezmirean, D., Duda, M., Mărgăoan, R., & Bobiş, O. (2015). Changes in major bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity of Agastache foeniculum, Lavandula angustifolia, Melissa officinalis and Nepeta cataria: Effect of harvest time and plant species. Industrial Crops and Products, 77, 499-507.
Ellman, G. L., Courtney, K. D., Andres Jr, V., & Featherstone, R. M. (1961). A new and rapid colorimetric determination of acetylcholinesterase activity. Biochemical Pharmacology, 7(2), 88-95.
Ferreira, A., Proença, C., Serralheiro, M., & Araujo, M. (2006). The in vitro screening for acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antioxidant activity of medicinal plants from Portugal. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 108(1), 31-37.
Gallego, M. G., Gordon, M. H., Segovia, F. J., Skowyra, M., & Almajano, M. P. (2013). Antioxidant properties of three aromatic herbs (rosemary, thyme and lavender) in oil-in-water emulsions. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 90, 1559-1568.
Giannoulis, K. D., Evangelopoulos, V., Gougoulias, N., & Wogiatzi, E. (2020). Could bio-stimulators affect flower, essential oil yield, and its composition in organic lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) cultivation? Industrial Crops and Products, 154, 112611.
Giray, F. H. (2018). An analysis of world lavender oil markets and lessons for Turkey. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 21(6), 1612-1623.
Guo, X., & Wang, P. (2020). Aroma Characteristics of Lavender Extract and Essential Oil from Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Molecules, 25(23), 5541.
Hampel, H., Shen, Y., Walsh, D. M., Aisen, P., Shaw, L. M., Zetterberg, H., Trojanowski, J. Q., & Blennow, K. (2010). Biological markers of amyloid β-related mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease. Experimental Neurology, 223(2), 334-346.
Hancianu, M., Cioanca, O., Mihasan, M., & Hritcu, L. (2013). Neuroprotective effects of inhaled lavender oil on scopolamine-induced dementia via anti-oxidative activities in rats. Phytomedicine, 20(5), 446-452.
Hano, C., & Tungmunnithum, D. (2020). Plant polyphenols, more than just simple natural antioxidants: Oxidative stress, aging and age-related diseases. Medicines, 7(5), 26.
Hassiotis, C., Ntana, F., Lazari, D., Poulios, S., & Vlachonasios, K. (2014). Environmental and developmental factors affect essential oil production and quality of Lavandula angustifolia during flowering period. Industrial Crops and Products, 62, 359-366.
Hernandez, M. F., Falé, P. L., Araújo, M. E. M., & Serralheiro, M. L. M. (2010). Acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antioxidant activity of the water extracts of several Hypericum species. Food Chemistry, 120(4), 1076-1082.
Hritcu, L., Cioanca, O., & Hancianu, M. (2012). Effects of lavender oil inhalation on improving scopolamine-induced spatial memory impairment in laboratory rats. Phytomedicine, 19(6), 529-534.
Kirimer, N., Mokhtarzadeh, S., Demirci, B., Goger, F., Khawar, K. M., & Demirci, F. (2017). Phytochemical profiling of volatile components of Lavandula angustifolia Miller propagated under in vitro conditions. Industrial Crops and Products, 96, 120-125.
Odak, I., Talić, S., & Martinović Bevanda, A. (2015). Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of three Lamiaceae species from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bulletin of the Chemists and Technologists of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 45, 23-30.
Peana, A. T., D'Aquila, P. S., Panin, F., Serra, G., Pippia, P., & Moretti, M. D. L. (2002). Anti-inflammatory activity of linalool and linalyl acetate constituents of essential oils. Phytomedicine, 9(8), 721-726.
Pistelli, L., Najar, B., Giovanelli, S., Lorenzini, L., Tavarini, S., & Angelini, L. (2017). Agronomic and phytochemical evaluation of lavandin and lavender cultivars cultivated in the Tyrrhenian area of Tuscany (Italy). Industrial Crops and Products, 109, 37-44.
Querfurth, H. W., & LaFerla, F. M. (2010). Alzheimer's disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 362(4), 329-344.
Quideau, S., Deffieux, D., Douat‐Casassus, C., & Pouységu, L. (2011). Plant polyphenols: chemical properties, biological activities, and synthesis. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 50(3), 586-621.
Radulescu, C., Stihi, C., Ilie, M., Lazurcă, D., Gruia, R., Olaru, O. T., Bute, O. C., Dulama, I. D., Stirbescu, R. M., et al. (2017). Characterization of Phenolics in Lavandula angustifolia. Analytical Letters, 50(17), 2839-2850.
Sabogal-Guáqueta, A. M., Osorio, E., & Cardona-Gómez, G. P. (2016). Linalool reverses neuropathological and behavioral impairments in old triple transgenic Alzheimer's mice. Neuropharmacology, 102, 111-120.
Shellie, R., Mondello, L., Marriott, P., & Dugo, G. (2002). Characterisation of lavender essential oils by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry with correlation of linear retention indices and comparison with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A, 970(1-2), 225-234.
Smigielski, K., Prusinowska, R., Stobiecka, A., Kunicka-Styczyñska, A., & Gruska, R. (2018). Biological properties and chemical composition of essential oils from flowers and aerial parts of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia). Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 21(5), 1303-1314.
Smigielski, K., Raj, A., Krosowiak, K., & Gruska, R. (2009). Chemical composition of the essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia cultivated in Poland. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 12(3), 338-347.
Soheili, M., Tavirani, M. R., & Salami, M. (2012). Clearance of amyloid beta plaques from brain of Alzheimeric rats by Lavandula angustifolia. Neuroscience & Medicine, 3(4), 26193.
Spiridon, I., Colceru, S., Anghel, N., Teaca, C. A., Bodirlau, R., & Armatu, A. (2011). Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania. Natural Product Research, 25(17), 1657-1661.
Talić, S., Odak, I., Bevanda, A. M., Crnjac, N., & Pastar, M. (2019). Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don subsp. italicum from Herzegovina: Volatile composition, variations during seasons, total polyphenols, acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antioxidant activity. Croatica Chemica Acta, 92(1), 69-78.
Tungmunnithum, D., Thongboonyou, A., Pholboon, A., & Yangsabai, A. (2018). Flavonoids and other phenolic compounds from medicinal plants for pharmaceutical and medical aspects: An overview. Medicines, 5(3), 93.
Verma, R. S., Rahman, L. U., Chanotiya, C. S., Verma, R. K., Chauhan, A., Yadav, A., Singh, A., & Yadav, A. K. (2010). Essential oil composition of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. cultivated in the mid hills of Uttarakhand, India. Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society, 75(3), 343-348.
Vladimir-Knežević, S., Blažeković, B., Kindl, M., Vladić, J., Lower-Nedza, A. D., & Brantner, A. H. (2014). Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory, antioxidant and phytochemical properties of selected medicinal plants of the Lamiaceae family. Molecules, 19(1), 767-782.
Wells, R., Truong, F., Adal, A. M., Sarker, L. S., & Mahmoud, S. S. (2018). Lavandula essential oils: a current review of applications in medicinal, food, and cosmetic industries of lavender. Natural Product Communications, 13(10), 1403-1417.
Woronuk, G., Demissie, Z., Rheault, M., & Mahmoud, S. (2011). Biosynthesis and therapeutic properties of Lavandula essential oil constituents. Planta Medica, 77(1), 7-15.
Wszelaki, N., Kuciun, A., & Kiss, A. (2010). Screening of traditional European herbal medicines for acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Acta Pharmaceutica, 60(1), 119-128.
Xu, P., Wang, K., Lu, C., Dong, L., Gao, L., Yan, M., Aibai, S., Yang, Y., & Liu, X. (2017). The protective effect of lavender essential oil and its main component linalool against the cognitive deficits induced by D-galactose and aluminum trichloride in mice. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2017, 7426538.
Zuo, L., Hemmelgarn, B. T., Chuang, C. C., & Best, T. M. (2015). The role of oxidative stress-induced epigenetic alterations in amyloid-β production in Alzheimer’s disease. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2015, 604658.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Stanislava Talić, Ilijana Odak, Marijana Marković Boras, Ante Smoljan, Anita Martinović Bevanda
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The papers published in the International Journal of Plant Based Pharmaceuticals are licenced under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence (CC BY).