Extraction of bioactive compound from Acacia seyal gum, in vitro evaluation of antitumor activity of its crude extract against leukemia

Abstract views: 110 / PDF downloads: 76


  • Nassereldeen Kabbashi International Islamic University of Malaysia (IIUM), Kulliyyah of Engineering, Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Jalan Gombak, 53100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1524-5065
  • Tahani Maher Alawdat International Islamic University of Malaysia (IIUM), Kulliyyah of Engineering, Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Jalan Gombak, 53100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9669-6457
  • Isam Y. Qudsieh Jazan University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, P.O.Box 706, 45142 Jazan, Saudi Arabia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1996-3152
  • Md Zahangir Alam International Islamic University of Malaysia (IIUM), Kulliyyah of Engineering, Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Jalan Gombak, 53100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6491-3218
  • Munirah Shahabuddin International Islamic University of Malaysia (IIUM), Kulliyyah of Engineering, Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Jalan Gombak, 53100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6385-7069




Acacia seyal gum, Sonication, FTIR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Anticancer


Today, many therapy drugs have been used to treat cancer patients. However, those drugs are not effective enough and usually have adverse side effects on human health. Different herbal medicine is rising in popularity because it is more compatible with the human body and has fewer side effects. Even while alternative herbal remedies effectively decrease symptoms in traditional medicine, many of them have yet to be scientifically proven. As a result, it's critical to keep looking for ways to recover its efficiency against cancer cells. Acacia seyal gum (ASG), known as Arabic gum, is a well-known traditional medicinal therapy with various restorative characteristics. In this study, the yield of ASG extract was optimized using experimental design followed by chemical characterization of a bioactive compound for the last yield, then the therapeutic potential of ASG crude extracts against leukemia cancer cells was investigated in vitro. The Raman Spectroscopy (RS), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, and GC-TOFMS analyses were used to characterize ASG crude hydroethanolic extract bioactive components. The anti-leukemic activity of ASG crude extracts was investigated in vitro against tumoral Jurkat T-cell ALL, and K562 leukemia cancer cell lines, as well as nontumoral WIL2NS cells. The optimum extraction conditions resulted in a yield of 75.89% after 45 min of extraction at temperature 40 °C and solid/liquid ratio of 1:25 g/ml. The cytotoxicity assays of ASG and Taxol revealed that both treatments inhibited the growth of K562 and Jurkat T cancer cells and exhibited the lowest IC50 for K562 and Jurkat T cancer cell (IC50=10 g/ml and IC50=5.11 g/ml, respectively), and a negligible inhibition effect for WIL2NS cells (IC50=80 g/ml).


Abolmaesoomi, M., Aziz, A.A., Junit, S.M., Ali, J.M., 2019. Ficus deltoidea: Effects of solvent polarity on antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities in breast and colon cancer cells. European Journal of Integrative Medicine, 28, 57-67. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eujim.2019.05.002

Adwan, G., Abu-Shanab, B., Adwan, K., 2010. Antibacterial activities of some plant extracts alone and in combination with different antimicrobials against multidrug–resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 3(4), 266-269. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1995-7645(10)60064-8

Ahmed, A.A., 2018. Health benefits of gum arabic and medical use. In Gum Arabic (pp. 183-210). Academic Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-812002-6.00016-6

Awad, S.S., Rabah, A.A., Ali, H.I., Mahmoud, T.E., 2018. Acacia seyal gums in Sudan: Ecology and economic contribution. In Gum Arabic (pp. 3-11). Academic Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-812002-6.00001-4

Azher, U., Shiggaon, N., 2013. Oral health status of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Indian Journal of Dental Research, 24(4), 523. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/0970-9290.118371

Che Sulaiman, I.S., Basri, M., Fard Masoumi, H.R., Chee, W.J., Ashari, S.E., Ismail, M., 2017. Effects of temperature, time, and solvent ratio on the extraction of phenolic compounds and the anti-radical activity of Clinacanthus nutans Lindau leaves by response surface methodology. Chemistry Central Journal, 11(1), 1-11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13065-017-0285-1

Collins, S.J., 1987. The HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cell line: proliferation, differentiation, and cellular oncogene expression. Blood, 70(5), 1233-1244. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1182/blood.V70.5.1233.1233

Dutta, S., Dutta, D., Das, S., 2019. Inactivation of leukemıa cells under influence of Rubia cordifolia extract. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 8(9), 717-729.

El Mahi, A.G., Magid, T.D.A., 2014. The Potential of Acacia seyal as a Resourceful Tree for Gum Arabic in Sudan. Gum Arab. Board (Sudan). Khartoum.

Elmi, A., Spina, R., Risler, A., Philippot, S., Mérito, A., Duval, R.E., Laurain-Mattar, D., 2020. Evaluation of antioxidant and antibacterial activities, cytotoxicity of Acacia seyal del bark extracts and isolated compounds. Molecules, 25(10), 2392. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25102392

Elnour, A. A., Mirghani, M. E., Kabbashi, N. A., ALAM, M., & Musa, K. H. (2018b). Gum arabic: An optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of antioxidant activity. Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai Chemia, 63(3), 95-116.

Elnour, A.A.M., Mirghani, M.E.S., Kabbashi, N.A., Alam, M.Z., 2018a. Significant bioactive compounds in crude methanol extracts and their fractions of Acacia seyal gum. International Journal of Sudan Research, 8(2), 99-112. DOI: https://doi.org/10.47556/J.IJSR.8.2.2018.3

Elnour, A.A.M., Mirghani, M.E.S., Kabbashi, N.A., Daddiouaissa, D., Musa, K.H., Alam, M.Z., Abdurahman, N.H., 2020. Active Fractions of Methanol Crude Obtained from Acacia Seyal Gum and their Antiproliferative Effects against Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research, 20, 51-64. DOI: https://doi.org/10.34257/GJSFRCVOL20IS3PG51

Esmaeili, F., Hashemiravan, M., Eshaghi, M.R., Gandomi, H., 2021. Optimization of Aqueous Extraction Conditions of Inulin from the Arctium lappa L. Roots Using Ultrasonic Irradiation Frequency. Journal of Food Quality, 2021, 5520996. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/5520996

Fan, S., Yang, G., Zhang, J., Li, J., Bai, B., 2020. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction using response surface methodology for simultaneous quantitation of six flavonoids in Flos sophorae immaturus and antioxidant activity. Molecules, 25(8), 1767. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25081767

Glover, D.A., 2012. The effects of dietary supplementation with Gum arabic on blood pressure and renal function in subjects with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Doctoral dissertation, Cardiff University).

Maran, J.P., Mekala, V., Manikandan, S., 2013. Modeling and optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharide from Cucurbita moschata. Carbohydrate Polymers, 92(2), 2018-2026. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.11.086

Mbaveng, A.T., Hamm, R., Kuete, V., 2014. Harmful and protective effects of terpenoids from African medicinal plants. In Toxicological survey of African medicinal plants (pp. 557-576). Elsevier. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-800018-2.00019-4

Murakami, A., Ashida, H., Terao, J. 2008. Multitargeted cancer prevention by quercetin. Cancer Letters, 269(2), 315–325. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2008.03.046

Naumburg, E., Bellocco, R., Cnattingius, S., Jonzon, A., Ekbom, A., 2002. Perinatal exposure to infection and risk of childhood leukemia. Medical and Pediatric Oncology, 38(6), 391-397. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/mpo.10084

Nie, S.P., Wang, C., Cui, S.W., Wang, Q., Xie, M.Y., Phillips, G.O., 2013. The core carbohydrate structure of Acacia seyal var. seyal (Gum arabic). Food Hydrocolloids, 32(2), 221-227. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2012.12.027

Norshazila, S., Koy, C.N., Rashidi, O., Ho, L.H., Azrina, I., Zaizuliana, N.R., Zarinah, Z., 2017. The effect of time, temperature and solid to solvent ratio on pumpkin carotenoids extracted using food grade solvents. Sains Malaysiana, 46(2), 231-237. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17576/jsm-2017-4602-07

Pandey, A., Belwal, T., Sekar, K.C., Bhatt, I.D., Rawal, R.S., 2018. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of phenolics and antioxidant compounds from rhizomes of Rheum moorcroftianum using response surface methodology (RSM). Industrial Crops and Products, 119, 218-225. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2018.04.019

Prakash, O.M., Kumar, A., Kumar, P., 2013. Anticancer potential of plants and natural products. American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences, 1(6), 104-115. DOI: https://doi.org/10.12691/ajps-1-6-1

Saedi, T.A., Md Noor, S., Ismail, P., Othman, F., 2014. The effects of herbs and fruits on leukaemia. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2014, 494136. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/494136

Suriyamoorthy, S., Subramaniam, K., Jeevan Raj Durai, S., Wahaab, F., Pemila Edith Chitraselvi, R., 2014. Evaluation of wound healing activity of Acacia caesia in rats. Wound Medicine, 7, 1-7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wndm.2015.03.001

Xu, N., Chen, G., Liu, H., 2017. Antioxidative categorization of twenty amino acids based on experimental evaluation. Molecules, 22(12), 2066. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22122066




How to Cite

Kabbashi, N., Alawdat, T. M., Qudsieh, . I. Y., Alam, M. Z., & Shahabuddin, M. (2022). Extraction of bioactive compound from Acacia seyal gum, in vitro evaluation of antitumor activity of its crude extract against leukemia. International Journal of Plant Based Pharmaceuticals, 2(1), 82–88. https://doi.org/10.62313/ijpbp.2022.18



Research Articles