Comparative study on phenolic content, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activities of five species of the genus Phaseolus

Abstract views: 199 / PDF downloads: 98


  • Firdose R. Kolar Karnataka State Akkamahadevi Women’s University, Department of Botany, Vijayapura-586 108, Karnataka, India
  • Vinutadivya Nirmanik Karnataka State Akkamahadevi Women’s University, Department of Botany, Vijayapura-586 108, Karnataka, India
  • Annapurna Kagawad Karnataka State Akkamahadevi Women’s University, Department of Botany, Vijayapura-586 108, Karnataka, India
  • Laxmi Angadi Karnataka State Akkamahadevi Women’s University, Department of Botany, Vijayapura-586 108, Karnataka, India
  • Babu R. Lamani Karnataka State Akkamahadevi Women’s University, Department of Botany, Vijayapura-586 108, Karnataka, India



Fabaceae, Phaseolus, Phytochemicals, Antioxidants, Radical scavenging, Correlation


The current study was designed to assess five species of the genus Phaseolus for phenolic content, flavonoid content, and antioxidant ability. The antioxidant capacity of the sample extracts was assessed using different antioxidant models such as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), DPPH free radical scavenging, phosphomolybdenum reducing power, ferrous ion chelating activity, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, deoxyribose degradation, and β-carotene bleaching assays. The results obtained discovered that the concentration of phenolics and flavonoids in the studied species ranged from 1.11 to 4.01mg TAE/g plant material and 0.11 to 1.16 mg QE/g plant material. The antioxidant activity of the extracts varied in a wide range in the different antioxidant assays depending on the genotype as well as the polarity of the solvents used to obtain the extracts. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts exhibited the maximum amount of phenolics and flavonoids among the solvents. The species studied exhibited a significant range of phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity. Hence, the present investigation can provide a new direction by utilizing Phaseolus species to formulate cost-effective, eco-friendly, and value-added therapeutic products.


Aknod, A.S.M.G.M., Khandaker, L., Berthold, J., Gates, L., Peters, K., Delong, H., Hossain, K., 2011. Anthocyanin, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of common bean. American Journal of Food Technology, 6, 385–394. DOI:

Alcázar-Valle, M., Lugo-Cervantes, E., Mojica, L., Morales-Hernández, N., Reyes-Ramírez, H., Enríquez-Vara, J.N., García-Morales, S., 2020. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and antinutritional content of legumes: a comparison between four phaseolus species. Molecules, 25(15), 3528. DOI:

Amarowicz, R., Pegg, R.B., 2008. Legumes as a source of natural antioxidants. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 110(10), 865-878. DOI:

Aquino, R., Morelli, S., Lauro, M.R., Abdo, S., Saija, A., Tomaino, A., 2001. Phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of an extract of anthurium v ersicolor leaves. Journal of Natural Products, 64(8), 1019-1023. DOI:

Arfan, M., Khan, R., Rybarczyk, A., Amarowicz, R., 2012. Antioxidant activity of mulberry fruit extracts. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 13(2), 2472-2480. DOI:

Bezuhla, O.N., Pozdniakov, V.V., Kobyzeva, L.N., Boguslavskiy, R.L., Antsyferova, O.V., 2018. Antioxidant activity of Phaseolus L. species seeds with different coat colour. Zemes Ukio Mokslai, 25(3), 117-124. DOI:

Câmara, C.R., Urrea, C.A., Schlegel, V., 2013. Pinto beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) as a functional food: implications on human health. Agriculture, 3(1), 90-111. DOI:

Capistrán-Carabarin, A., Aquino-Bolaños, E.N., García-Díaz, Y.D., Chávez-Servia, J.L., Vera-Guzmán, A.M., Carrillo-Rodríguez, J.C., 2019. Complementarity in Phenolic Compounds and the Antioxidant Activities of Phaseolus coccineus L. and P. vulgaris L. Landraces. Foods, 8(8), 295. DOI:

Chávez-Mendoza, C., Sánchez, E., 2017. Bioactive compounds from Mexican varieties of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): Implications for health. Molecules, 22(8), 1360. DOI:

Chen, P.X., Tang, Y., Marcone, M.F., Pauls, P.K., Zhang, B., Liu, R., Tsao, R., 2015. Characterization of free, conjugated and bound phenolics and lipophilic antioxidants in regular-and non-darkening cranberry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Food Chemistry, 185, 298-308. DOI:

Choung, M.G., Choi, B.R., An, Y.N., Chu, Y.H., Cho, Y.S., 2003. Anthocyanin profile of Korean cultivated kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51(24), 7040-7043. DOI:

Chun, O.K., Kim, D.O., Lee, C.Y., 2003. Superoxide radical scavenging activity of the major polyphenols in fresh plums. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51(27), 8067-8072. DOI:

Curran, J., 2012. The nutritional value and health benefits of pulses in relation to obesity, diabetes, heart disease and cancer. British Journal of Nutrition, 108(S1), S1-S2. DOI:

De Mejia, E.G., Guzmán-Maldonado, S.H., Acosta-Gallegos, J.A., Reynoso-Camacho, R., Ramírez-Rodríguez, E., Pons-Hernández, J.L., González-Chavira, M.M., Castellanos, J. Z., Kelly, J.D., 2003. Effect of cultivar and growing location on the trypsin inhibitors, tannins, and lectins of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in the semiarid highlands of Mexico. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51(20), 5962-5966. DOI:

Dehpour, A.A., Ebrahimzadeh, M.A., Fazel, N.S., Mohammad, N.S., 2009. Antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of Ferula assafoetida and its essential oil composition. Grasas y Aceites, 60(4), 405-412. DOI:

Dinis, T.C.P., Madeira, V.M.C., Almeida, M.L.M., 1994. Action of phenolic derivatives (acetaminophen, salicylate, and 5-aminosalicylate) as inhibitors of membrane lipid peroxidation and as peroxyl radical scavengers. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 315(1), 161-169. DOI:

Espinosa-Alonso, L.G., Lygin, A., Widholm, J.M., Valverde, M.E., Paredes-Lopez, O., 2006. Polyphenols in wild and weedy Mexican common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54(12), 4436-4444. DOI:

Guajardo-Flores, D., Serna-Saldívar, S.O., Gutiérrez-Uribe, J.A., 2013. Evaluation of the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of extracted saponins and flavonols from germinated black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Food Chemistry, 141(2), 1497-1503. DOI:

Gupta, K., Maurya, S., Agarwal, S., Kushwaha, A., Kumar, R., Pandey, A.K., Singh, M.P., 2016. Antioxidant assessment of extracts obtained through hot extraction process. Cellular and Molecular Biology, 62(3), 129.

Gyamfi, M.A., Yonamine, M., Aniya, Y., 1999. Free-radical scavenging action of medicinal herbs from Ghana: Thonningia sanguinea on experimentally-induced liver injuries. General Pharmacology: The Vascular System, 32(6), 661-667. DOI:

Halliwell, B., Clement, M.V., Long, L.H., 2000. Hydrogen peroxide in the human body. FEBS Letters, 486(1), 10-13. DOI:

Halliwell, B., Gutteridge, J.M., Aruoma, O.I., 1987. The deoxyribose method: a simple “test-tube” assay for determination of rate constants for reactions of hydroxyl radicals. Analytical Biochemistry, 165(1), 215-219. DOI:

Hayat, I., Ahmad, A., Masud, T., Ahmed, A., Bashir, S., 2014. Nutritional and health perspectives of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): an overview. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 54(5), 580-592. DOI:

Khan, R.A., Khan, M.R., Sahreen, S., Ahmed, M., 2012. Evaluation of phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of various solvent extracts of Sonchus asper (L.) Hill. Chemistry Central Journal, 6(1), 1-7. DOI:

Kim, M.Y., Seguin, P., Ahn, J.K., Kim, J.J., Chun, S.C., Kim, E.H., Chung, I.M., 2008. Phenolic compound concentration and antioxidant activities of edible and medicinal mushrooms from Korea. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56(16), 7265-7270. DOI:

Krishnaswamy, K., 1996. Indian functional foods: Role in prevention of cancer. Nutrition Reviews, 54(11), S127-S131. DOI:

Lee, C.Y., Nanah, C.N., Held, R.A., Clark, A.R., Huynh, U.G., Maraskine, M.C., Sharma, A., 2015. Effect of electron donating groups on polyphenol-based antioxidant dendrimers. Biochimie, 111, 125-134. DOI:

Luximon-Ramma, A., Bahorun, T., Soobrattee, M.A., Aruoma, O.I., 2002. Antioxidant activities of phenolic, proanthocyanidin, and flavonoid components in extracts of Cassia fistula. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50(18), 5042-5047. DOI:

Miller, H.E., 1971. A simplified method for the evaluation of antioxidants. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 48(2), 91. DOI:

Oliveira, I., Valentão, P., Lopes, R., Andrade, P.B., Bento, A., Pereira, J.A., 2009. Phytochemical characterization and radical scavenging activity of Portulaca oleraceae L. leaves and stems. Microchemical Journal, 92(2), 129-134. DOI:

Onyilagha, J.C., Islam, S., 2009. Flavonoids and other polyphenols of the cultivated species of the genus Phaseolus. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 11, 231-234.

Pitura, K., Arntfield, S.D., 2019. Characteristics of flavonol glycosides in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seed coats. Food Chemistry, 272, 26-32. DOI:

Prieto, P., Pineda, M., Aguilar, M., 1999. Spectrophotometric quantitation of antioxidant capacity through the formation of a phosphomolybdenum complex: specific application to the determination of vitamin E. Analytical Biochemistry, 269(2), 337-341. DOI:

Pulido, R., Bravo, L., Saura-Calixto, F., 2000. Antioxidant activity of dietary polyphenols as determined by a modified ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48(8), 3396-3402. DOI:

Reische, D.W., Lillard, D.A., Eitenmiller, R.R., 2008. Antioxidants. In: Akoh C.C., Min D.B., editors. Food Lipids Chemistry Nutrition, and Biotechnology. 3rd. CRC Press; New York, NY, USA, p. 409-433. DOI:

Rocha-Guzman, N.E., Gallegos-Infante, J.A., 2007. Antioxidant activity in cotyledon of black and yellow common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 2(1), 112-117.

Rodríguez Madrera, R., Campa Negrillo, A., Suárez Valles, B., Ferreira Fernández, J.J., 2021. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity in seeds of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Foods, 10(4), 864. DOI:

Rodríguez Madrera, R.R., Negrillo, A.C., Valles, B.S., Fernández, J.J.F., 2020. Characterization of extractable phenolic profile of common bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in a Spanish diversity panel. Food Research International, 138, 109713. DOI:

Sadasivam, S., Manickam, A., 1992. Biochemical methods for agricultural sciences. New Delhi, Wiley Eastern Limited, pp.187.

Shah, N.A., Khan, M.R., Naz, K., Khan, M.A., 2014. Antioxidant potential, DNA protection, and HPLC-DAD analysis of neglected medicinal Jurinea dolomiaea roots. BioMed Research International, 2014, 1-10. DOI:

Siramon, P., Ohtani, Y., 2007. Antioxidative and antiradical activities of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf oils from Thailand. Journal of Wood Science, 53(6), 498-504. DOI:

Sreeramulu, D., Reddy, C., Raghunath, M., 2009. Antioxidant activity of commonly consumed cereals, millets, pulses and legumes in India. Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 46, 112-115.

Suárez-Martínez, S.E., Ferriz-Martínez, R.A., Campos-Vega, R., Elton-Puente, J.E., de la Torre Carbot, K., García-Gasca, T., 2016. Bean seeds: leading nutraceutical source for human health. CyTA-Journal of Food, 14(1), 131-137. DOI:

Sultana, B., Anwar, F., Przybylski, R., 2007. Antioxidant activity of phenolic components present in barks of Azadirachta indica, Terminalia arjuna, Acacia nilotica, and Eugenia jambolana Lam. trees. Food Chemistry, 104(3), 1106-1114. DOI:

Wettasinghe, M., Shahidi, F., 1999. Antioxidant and free radical-scavenging properties of ethanolic extracts of defatted borage (Borago officinalis L.) seeds. Food Chemistry, 67(4), 399-414. DOI:

Wolfe, K., Wu, X., Liu, R.H., 2003. Antioxidant activity of apple peels. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51(3), 609-614. DOI:

You, Y., Duan, X., Wei, X., Su, X., Zhao, M., Sun, J., Jiang, Y., 2007. Identificationof major phenolic compounds of Chinese water chestnut and their antioxidant activity. Molecules, 12(4), 842-852. DOI:

Zhao, G.R., Xiang, Z.J., Ye, T.X., Yuan, Y.J., Guo, Z.X., 2006. Antioxidant activities of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Panax notoginseng. Food Chemistry, 99(4), 767-774. DOI:

Zhu, Z., Jiang, W., Thompson, H.J., 2012. Edible dry bean consumption (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) modulates cardiovascular risk factors and diet-induced obesity in rats and mice. British Journal of Nutrition, 108(S1), S66-S73. DOI:

Zou, Y.P., Chang, S.K.C., 2014. Antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of extract and fractions from small red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Journal of Food and Nutrition, 1(105), 1-11.




How to Cite

Kolar, F. R., Nirmanik, V., Kagawad, A., Angadi, . L., & Lamani, B. R. (2022). Comparative study on phenolic content, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activities of five species of the genus Phaseolus. International Journal of Plant Based Pharmaceuticals, 2(1), 136–144.



Research Articles