Effect of genotype and extraction method on polyphenols content, phenolic acids, and flavonoids of olive leaves (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea)
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Keywords:Polyphenols, Cultivated olive leaves, Wild olive leaves, Genotype, Method of extraction
Polyphenol’s extraction varied according to various factors. In this study, the effect of genotype and method of polyphenols extraction were investigated using leaves of two cultivated and two wild olive varieties and four hydromethanolic extraction methods. Quantitatively, significant differences were observed according to the extraction method, the genotype, and the interaction genotype-method of extraction. The heat reflux extraction showed the highest polyphenols content in wild olive leaves having an amount of 841.17 mg GAE/100 g DM. The qualitative phytochemical examination using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of olive leaves showed some significant differences of phenolic compounds between genotypes. For the same oleaster genotype, the extraction method seemed to influence qualitatively the polyphenols profiles. The quinic acid was the dominant phenolic acid and the luteolin-7-O-glucoside was the major flavonoid observed in wild olive leaves having, respectively, 618.24 and 3211.44 mg/kg DM. The quinic acid has an amount of 400.15 and 275.39 mg/kg and the luteolin-7-O-glucoside has an amount of 2059.62 and 1214.49 mg/kg in cultivars leaves. The extraction by Soxhlet of wild olive leaves showed the highest quinic acid (1085.80 mg/kg DM) and luteolin-7-O-glucoside (3720.15 mg/kg DM) amounts. The hydromethanolic extraction assisted by Soxhlet of wild olive leaves constituted the optimal method to obtain high polyphenols contents enriched with phenolic acids and flavonoids.
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